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Depression – Stages, Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Depression - Stages, Types, Symptoms

Depression is a feeling of sadness and hopelessness and affects the quality of life. The patients experience anger, hostility, poor concentration, and loss of interest in daily activities. There are five stages of depression. Let’s learn more about it.

What is Depression?

Depressive thoughts and feeling low once in a while are quite normal. However, when one is feeling low for a long time, the patient may be suffering from depression. Depression alters your thought process and interferes with your daily activities, such as eating, sleeping, working, and studying.

Depression and anxiety generally occur together. Untreated mental depression may result in developing several diseases. Depression is more common in women than men. Depression is a chronic disease, and the symptoms of depression may last for at least 14 days. Chronic depression may last for months or years.

Stages of Depression

There are five depression stages. These are:

  1. Denial: This is the initial stage of depression. The patient is in denial mode at this stage. Although patients experience some of the symptoms, they are not ready to accept their condition. They are in a feeling of disbelief and are resistant to the facts.
  2. Anger: The patients may get angry by thinking why it happened to them. They feel annoyed as there is no way of getting out of this condition. The patients experience a feeling of hostility, displeasure, and annoyance.
  3. Bargaining: In this stage, the patients start negotiating with the condition. They try to convert the negative thoughts bought by depression to some positive outcomes. However, this rarely helps the patients.
  4. Depression: By this stage, a lot of negative feeling, hopelessness, and demotivation starts accumulating which results in further depression.
  5. Acceptance: This is the last stage. During this stage, the patients realize that they are suffering from depression and think of taking consultation from a healthcare professional.

Types of Depression

Depression - Causes, Treatment

Some of the most common types of depression are:

  • Major depression: In such depression, the patient is always under depressed feeling, sadness, and hopelessness. The patients may lose pleasure in those activities which were joyous to them in the past.
  • Persistent depressive disorder: The patients with this type of depression have the symptoms at least for two years. The patient sometimes has episodes of major depression and sometimes milder symptoms.
  • Psychotic depression: Such patients have concomitant psychosis along with depression. During psychosis, the patient experiences hallucinations and false beliefs.
  • Bipolar disorder: Depression is a common symptom of bipolar disorder. However, patients with bipolar disorder also have episodes of high energy.

Symptoms of Depression

Some of the symptoms of depression are:

  • Persistent feeling of hopelessness, sadness, and helplessness
  • Changes in sleep pattern
  • Hostility, arrogance, and anger
  • Loss of appetite and change in weight
  • Loss of interest in activities that were pleasurable in the past
  • Problem in concentration
  • Unexplained stomach ache, aching muscles, headaches, and back pain

Causes of Depression

There is no complete information about the cause of depression. However, some factors increase the risk of developing depression. These are:

  • Isolation and loneliness
  • Chronic disease
  • Symptoms for neurological diseases, such as bipolar disorder
  • Recent stressful event
  • Relationship problems
  • Financial problems
  • Drug abuse
  • Family history of depression
  • Childhood trauma

Treatment of Depression

The treatment options for depression are:

  • Medications: The doctor may prescribe some antidepressant medications that help in relieving the symptoms. The medicines include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs),  tricyclic and atypical antidepressants, selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs),
  • Exercise: Exercise can manage mild depression by stimulating neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
  • Therapies: The doctor may also advise the patients to undergo various therapies. These include psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, and brain-stimulating therapy.


The patient must accept his disease and take consultation from a healthcare professional. With proper treatment, counseling, and therapies, the patient can successfully manage depression.

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