Gastrointestinal or GI Tract – Digestive System Disorders
What are Gastrointestinal Diseases?
A disease occurring in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of a person is referred to as a gastrointestinal disorder. This tract includes some hollow organs that are present in the form of a long passage, starting from our mouth till the anus. Thus, it consists of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Numerous conditions can affect the GI tract, which in turn hamper digestion and ultimately overall health of an individual.
Various Gastrointestinal or Digestive Disorders:
Here are the different types of gastrointestinal disorders:
There is hypersensitivity of the small intestine to gluten. If gluten is consumed, the immune system attacks and damages the villi in the small intestine. This results in hampering nutrient absorption.
It implies occurrences of hard and dry stools that are difficult to pass. Certain medications, low fibre intake and inactivity results in constipation.
Inflammation patches appear in the GI tract in this disease and result in diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain or blood/mucus in their faeces. Diet and stress are the main reasons which aggravate the issue.
This is a type of colitis that results in rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and diarrhoea. Colonoscopy and biopsy are used for diagnosis.
In this disease, diverticula or small pockets appear in the bowel. In case undigested food gets stuck in them, pain, constipation, and cramping occur. A low fibre diet leads to Diverticular disease.
It is also known as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or GERD. There is a muscle around the entrance of the stomach. If it weakens, partially digested food comes back into the oesophagus, causing chest pain, nausea, and heartburn.
Haemorrhoids and anal fissures:
When there is swelling in the anal cushions, these occur internally or externally, resulting in bleeding during bowel motion. In the case of anal fissures, tears appear in the anal lines and can be prevented by taking a high fibre diet.
Colon polyps and cancer:
It is one of the top ten most prevalent forms of cancer in India, but if detected early and proper treatment is given, it is curable. Screening tests can be used for preventing, detecting and treating it.
This is caused by norovirus, or bacteria such as campylobacter, salmonella, Escherichia. It is characterized by a frequent urge to go to the toilet for defecation, which is loose and watery. Cramps, vomiting and abdominal pain also occur.
The various symptoms of digestive disorders are as follows:
- Gas in the GI tract
- GI bleeding
- Pain in the abdomen
- Low fever
Gastrointestinal disorder treatment:
The treatment of digestive disorders is specific depending on the diagnosis and the trouble that has been detected.
Here are the things which should be done for treatment of digestive system diseases:
- The person has to take rest and drink sufficient water.
- Rice, applesauce, toast, banana are some food items that should be consumed as they are easily digestible.
- Dairy products and dishes which are spicy must be avoided as these can upset the digestive system.
- Medicines and laxatives prescribed by the doctor should be taken without fail.
- If the person is feeling nauseatic, the doctor can be asked to advise some anti-nausea dose.
- In the case of colorectal cancer, a person may not find the symptoms. This necessitates screening it for detecting it before it reaches an advanced level.